Operational Medicine Medical Education and Training

Basic Human Physiology

CORRESPONDENCE COURSE

U.S. ARMY MEDICAL DEPARTMENT CENTER AND SCHOOL

SUBCOURSE MD0007 EDITION 100

BASIC HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY

In this subcourse, you will study basic human physiology. Anatomy is the study of body structure. Physiology is the study of body functions, particularly at the cellular level. Anatomy and physiology are two subject matter areas that are vitally important to most medical MOSs.

Do your best to achieve the objectives of this subcourse. As a result, you will be better able to perform your job or medical MOS.

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Length: 307 Pages

Estimated Hours to Complete: 26

Format: PDF file

Size: 2.0 MB

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Anyone may take this course. However, to receive credit hours, you must be officially enrolled and complete an examination furnished by the Nonresident Instruction Branch at Fort Sam Houston, Texas. Enrollment is normally limited to Department of Defense personnel. Others may apply for enrollment, but acceptance is not guaranteed.
 

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Basic Human Physiology

Distance Learning Course
307 Pages
Est. 26 Hours
2.0 MB pdf file

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

 

1 INTRODUCTION TO BASIC HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY

Exercises

2 PHYSIOLOGY OF CELLS AND MISCELLANEOUS TISSUES

Section I. Cells

Section II. Body Fluids

Section III. Homeostasis

Section IV. Cell Growth and Multiplication

Section V. Epithelial Cells and Tissues

Section VI. Fibrous Connective Tissue (FCT)

Section VII. Fatty Tissues.

Exercises

3 ENVELOPES OF THE BODY

Section I. Introduction.

Section II. Integument Proper..

Section III. Integumentary Derivatives

Section IV. Functions of the Integumentary System.

Section V. Subcutaneous Layer

Section VI. Investing Deep Fascia.

Section VII. Body Temperature Control

Section VIII. Vitamin D Production

Section IX. Superficial Wound Healing

Section X. General Adaptations of Grasping/Holding

Section XI. Variations in Penetration

Exercises

4 THE SKELETAL SYSTEM

Section I. General.

Section II. Tissues and Tissue Processes of Skeletal Elements

Section III. Definition and Types of Bones

Section IV. A "Typical" Long Bone

Section V. A "Typical" Flat Bone

Section VI. Sesamoid Bones.

Section VII. Definition and Types of Joints

Section VIII. A "Typical Synovial Joint.

Section IX. The Axial Skeleton

Section X. The Appendicular Skeleton..

Exercises

5 PHYSIOLOGY AND ACTIONS OF MUSCLES

Section I. Muscle Tissues

Section II. Skeletal Muscles

Section III. Some Skeletomuscular Mechanics

Section IV. Nervous Control of Skeletal Muscles

Exercises

6 THE HUMAN DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

Section I. Introduction.

Section II. Ingestion and Initial Processing of Foods.

Section III. Swallowing (Deglutition)

Section IV. Temporary Storage

Section V. Digestion and Absorption

Section VI. Some Protective Mechanisms Associated with the Human Digestive System

Section VII. Vitamins

Section VIII. Elimination of Unused Materials

Exercises

7 THE HUMAN RESPIRATORY SYSTEM AND BREATHING

Section I. Introduction

Section II. Introduction to Human Breathing

Section III. Costal ("Thoracic") Breathing

Section IV. Diaphragmatic ("Abdominal") Breathing

Section V. Introduction to the Human Respiratory System.

Section VI. The Supralaryngeal Structures

Section VII. Larynx

Section VIII. The "Respiratory Tree" and Pulmonary Alveoli .

Section IX. Lungs and Pleural Cavities

Section X. The Pulmonary NAVL

Section XI. Exchange and Transportation of Gases:Artificial Breathing/Resuscitation

Exercises

8 THE HUMAN URINARY SYSTEM

Section I. The Kidney

Section II. Other Parts of the Human Urinary System

Exercises

9 THE HUMAN REPRODUCTIVE (GENITAL) SYSTEM

Section I. Introduction

Section II. Gametes (Sex Cells)

Section III. The Male Reproductive System

Section IV. The Female Reproductive System

Section V. Intrauterine Development

Section VI. Parturition

Exercises

10 CARDIOVASCULAR AND OTHER CIRCULATORY SYSTEMS OF THE HUMAN BODY

Section I. Introduction

Section II. The Blood--The Vehicle of the Cardiovascular System

Section III. The Blood Vessels--The Conduits of the Cardiovascular System

Section IV. The Heart--The Primary Motive Force of the Cardiovascular System

Section V. Motive Forces Involved in Driving the Blood Through the System

Section VI. Capillaries

Section VII. Temperature Control by Means of the Blood.

Section VIII. Other Circulatory Systems

Exercises

11 THE HUMAN ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

Section I. Introduction.

Section II. The Pituitary Body

Section III. The Pineal Gland

Section IV. The Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands

Section V. The Pancreatic Islets (Islands of Langerhans)

Section VI. The Adrenal (Suprarenal) Glands

Section VII. The Gonads as Endocrine Glands

Exercises

12 THE HUMAN NERVOUS SYSTEM

Section I. Introduction.

Section II. The Central Nervous System (CNS)

Section III. The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS).

Section IV. The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)

Section V. Electrochemical Transmission of Neuron Impulses.

Section VI. The General Reflex and the Reflex Arc

Section VII. General Sensory Pathways of

the Human Nervous System

Section VIII. Motor Pathways in the Human Nervous System

Section IX. Levels of Control in the Human

Nervous System

Section X. Miscellaneous Topics

Exercises

13 THE SPECIAL SENSES

Section I. Introduction

Section II. The Special Sense of Vision

Section III. The Special Sense of Hearing (Auditory Sense)

Section IV. The Special Sense of Equilibrium, the General Body Sense, and Postural Reflexes

Section V. The Special Sense of Smell (Olfaction)

Section VI. The Special Sense of Taste (Gustation)

Exercises

14 SOME ELEMENTARY HUMAN GENETICS.

Exercises

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LESSON 1

INTRODUCTION TO BASIC HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY

1-1. DEFINITION

Physiology is the study of the functions of the body at the cellular level.

1-2. LEVELS OF FUNCTION

Function in the human body occurs at three general levels:

a. Molecular. The basic functional entity is the molecule. The structure and interaction of the molecules of the body is the subject of the science of biochemistry.

b. Cellular. The individual cell is the basis of the structure and function of the human body. The individual human body consists of great numbers of these cells working together as a total organism. Groups of like cells performing a common function are called tissues. Different tissues collected together form individual organs. Groups of organs performing an overall function are called organ systems, for example, the digestive system, the respiratory system, etc. When these systems are together in a single individual, we refer to that individual as an organism. The cellular level of function is the primary subject matter of physiology.

c. Regional. Here, individual parts of the human body (made up of specific organs) perform activities as a unit. For example, the hand serves as a grasping, tool-holding apparatus. The study of this level of function is called functional anatomy.

1-3. INTERRELATIONSHIPS

There is an inseparable relationship between structure and function in the human body. Every structure is designed to perform a particular function or functions. Likewise, every function has structures designed to perform it.

1-4. LAWS OF NATURE

The Universe has a fundamental order. The Universe is governed by discrete and precise laws of nature. These laws are universal, unchangeable, and omnipresent. The human organism is ultimately controlled by these laws. The organic body of the human being is essentially operated by the laws of physics and chemistry.

a. Gravitational Force and Mass.

(1) Gravitational force. As you stand upon the surface of the Earth, your body and its parts experience the force called gravity. The measure of this force is called weight. Gravity is one type of gravitational force, a force which attracts all particles and bodies to each other. Gravity acts upon your body during every instant of your life.

(2) Mass. If you were standing on the surface of the Moon, you would weigh 1/6 of your weight on Earth, but your mass would remain the same. Mass is an intrinsic property of a particle or object that determines its response to a given force. In a given location, the weight of an object depends upon its mass.

b. Space and Time. Each individual occupies a certain amount of space. We exist over a span of time. During the passage of time, we change--from an infant, to a child, to an adult, to an adult of advanced age.

c. Physical States of Matter. The matter around and in us exists in several states. These various states generally reflect the closeness of the molecules that make up the matter.

(1) Solid. The most compact organization is the solid, which retains its specific form and shape.

(2) Liquid. Liquids tend to flow but still stay together.

(3) Gas. Gases also flow but are widely spread and will readily dissipate in many directions.

d. Pressure Gradients. Substances that flow (gases and liquids) flow in very specific directions. They flow from an area of higher pressure or concentration to an area of lower pressure or concentration as long as the two areas are freely interconnected. The difference in pressures of two interconnected areas is called a pressure gradient. When plotted on graph paper, it is in the form of a slope. The greater the difference, the steeper is the slope and the faster the material flows.

1-5. MECHANICS/BIOMECHANICS

Machines are devices that do work. The different kinds of machines and their modes of action are the study of applied mechanics. The human body, as already stated, conforms in its structural organization to the laws of physics. The body uses several different kinds of machines, such as levers, pulleys, and valves, in its operation. We refer to these operations as biomechanics.

1-6. LIFE PROCESSES

The planet upon which we live is composed of inanimate (nonliving) materials such as minerals, water, etc. Living organisms reside upon or in this mass of nonliving material. You can distinguish living from nonliving material by the fact that living material carries on a series of functions known as the life processes. A living thing  takes in substances, grows, moves, is irritable, and reproduces. Often, it is difficult to distinguish between living and nonliving materials. But in the ultimate analysis only living materials perform all of these functions.

From Basic Human Physiology

 

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