Operational Medicine Medical Education and Training

Drug Dosage and Therapy

CORRESPONDENCE COURSE

U.S. ARMY MEDICAL DEPARTMENT CENTER AND SCHOOL

SUBCOURSE MD0913 EDITION 100

DRUG DOSAGE AND THERAPY

The administration of drugs is one of the most important and exacting duties performed in caring for sick and injured patients. The appropriate drug given in the correct dosage will very often hasten a patient's recovery. On the other hand, an inappropriate drug or dosage may worsen a patient's condition or even result in his death.

The enlisted person charged with the administration of drugs is therefore faced with a grave responsibility, whether medical supervision is immediately available or not.

The purpose of this subcourse is to familiarize you with basic drugs that are standard for the U.S. Army. Discussion includes the actions, clinical uses, administration, untoward effects, cautions, and contraindications in the use of these drugs, as well as their forms of issue.

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Length: 237 Pages

Estimated Hours to Complete: 16

Format: PDF file

Size: 2.4 MB

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Anyone may take this course. However, to receive credit hours, you must be officially enrolled and complete an examination furnished by the Nonresident Instruction Branch at Fort Sam Houston, Texas. Enrollment is normally limited to Department of Defense personnel. Others may apply for enrollment, but acceptance is not guaranteed.

Pharmacy abbreviations

Drug Dosage and Therapy

Distance Learning Course
237 Pages
Est. 16 Hours
2.4 MB pdf file

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LESSON 1: DOSAGE CALCULATIONS

Section I. INTERPRETING MEDICAL ORDERS

1-1. COMMON MEDICAL ABBREVIATIONS

To calculate doses and administer drugs, you must be familiar with those abbreviations commonly used in medicine, especially those found in prescriptions and clients' charts. Table 1-1 is a list of common Latin terms and abbreviations used in medicine. Tables 1-2 and 1-3 are summaries of common abbreviations used to indicate times of administration, routes of administration, and dosage forms. Tables 1-4 and 1-5 give symbols or abbreviations for different units of measure.

1-2. ROMAN NUMERALS

Roman numerals are used in writing prescriptions. They are used to specify the amounts of ingredients when the apothecary system is being used. They are used to specify the number of units (capsules, tablets, powders, suppositories, and so forth) to be dispensed; for example, "Dispxxiv." And lastly, they are used in the signa or directions to the client. You should, therefore, be thoroughly familiar with the system of Roman numerals used in pharmacy. The basic symbols or numerals are:

ss, 1/2

I 1

V 5

X 10

L 50

C 100

D 500

M 1000

These basic numerals may be combined to represent any number, and there are definite rules for the manner in which they are combined. Upper-case or lower-case letters may be used for Roman numerals. Prescribers usually prefer uppercase letters, but they dot the "I" for the sake of clarity. The rules for Roman numerals are as follows:

 

 

 

 


 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

1 DOSAGE CALCULATIONS

Section I. Interpreting Medical Orders

Section II. Ratio and Proportion

Section III. The Metric System

Section IV. The Apothecary System

Section V. Conversions

Section VI. Percentage Solutions

Section VII. Injection Dose Calculations

Section VIII. Pediatric Dose Calculations

Exercises

2 BASIC PHARMACOLOGY; ANTISEPTICS AND DISINFECTANTS; OTHER TOPICAL DRUGS; GASTROINTESTINAL AGENTS; RESPIRATORY DRUGS; LOCAL ANESTHETICS

Section I. Introduction to Pharmacology

Section II. Antiseptics and Disinfectants

Section III. Other Topical Drugs

Section IV. Antacids.

Section V. Cathartics

Section VI. Antidiarrheals

Section VII. Respiratory Drugs

Section VIII. Local Anesthetics

Exercises

3 CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DRUGS

Section I. The Central Nervous System.

Section II. Sedative-Hypnotics

Section III. Antipsychotic Tranquilizers and Related Antidepressants.

Section IV. Narcotic Analgesics 3

Section V. Nonaddictive Analgesics and Antipyretics.

Section VI. CNS Stimulants 3-

Exercises

4 AUTONOMIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR DRUGS

Section I. The Autonomic Nervous System

Section II. Anticholinergic (Parasympatholytic) Drugs

Section III. Adrenergic (Sympathomimetic) Drugs

Section IV. Vasodilator Drugs

Section V. Fluid and Electrolyte Therapy

Section VI. Antihistamines

Section VII. Other Agents

Exercises

5 DRUGS USED TO PREVENT AND TREAT INFECTION I

Section I. Microbiology

Section II. Biologicals (Immunizing Agents)

Section III. Penicillins and Cephalosporins; Erythromycin

Section IV. Tetracyclines

Exercise

6 DRUGS USED TO PREVENT AND TREAT INFECTION II

Section I. Aminoglycosides.

Section II. Sulfonamides

Section III. Antifungal Agents

Section IV. Antimalarial Drugs

Section V. Anthelmintic Drugs.

Section VI. Other Agents

Exercises

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LESSON 1: DOSAGE CALCULATIONS

Section I. INTERPRETING MEDICAL ORDERS

1-1. COMMON MEDICAL ABBREVIATIONS

To calculate doses and administer drugs, you must be familiar with those abbreviations commonly used in medicine, especially those found in prescriptions and clients' charts. Table 1-1 is a list of common Latin terms and abbreviations used in medicine. Tables 1-2 and 1-3 are summaries of common abbreviations used to indicate times of administration, routes of administration, and dosage forms. Tables 1-4 and 1-5 give symbols or abbreviations for different units of measure.

1-2. ROMAN NUMERALS

Roman numerals are used in writing prescriptions. They are used to specify the amounts of ingredients when the apothecary system is being used. They are used to specify the number of units (capsules, tablets, powders, suppositories, and so forth) to be dispensed; for example, "Dispxxiv." And lastly, they are used in the signa or directions to the client. You should, therefore, be thoroughly familiar with the system of Roman numerals used in pharmacy. The basic symbols or numerals are:

ss, 1/2

I 1

V 5

X 10

L 50

C 100

D 500

M 1000

These basic numerals may be combined to represent any number, and there are definite rules for the manner in which they are combined. Upper-case or lower-case letters may be used for Roman numerals. Prescribers usually prefer uppercase letters, but they dot the "I" for the sake of clarity. The rules for Roman numerals are as follows:

a. Fractions. Except for "ss" meaning one-half (1/2), all other fractions are represented by Arabic numerals (1/4, 3/8, 1/120, and so forth). (Note: The "ss" may be written with or without a bar--ss or .)

b. Repeating Numerals. Numerals may be repeated. When they are, the value of the number is repeated. Thus, iii or III is 3 (1+1+1), XXX is 30 (10+10+10), and CCC is 300 (100+100+100). Any numeral that would be the same as another when repeated is NOT repeated. For example, VV is NOT used for 10 (5+5) because X is 10 and LL is NOT used for 100 (50+50) because C = 100).

c. Smaller Numerals Before Larger. When a smaller numeral placed before a larger one, the smaller value is subtracted from the larger one. Only one number can be subtracted in this way. Thus, IV (5 - 1) = 4; IX (10 - 1) = 9; and XC (100 - 10) = 90 are correct, but 3 is never written IIV.

d. Smaller Numerals After Larger. A smaller numeral placed after a larger one is added to the larger number. For example, VIII = (5+3) = 8 ; XIII = (10+3) = 13; CLX = (100+50+10) = 160.

e. Smaller Numeral Between Two Larger. A smaller numeral between two larger ones is ALWAYS subtracted from the larger numeral which follows it as CXL (100 + [50-10]) = 140; MCMLXXVI (1000 + [1000-100] + 50 + 10 + 10 + 5 + 1) = 1976.

f. The Use of "j." As a precaution against error, the last "i" may be replaced by a "j." When this method is used, 3 would be written as iij.

g. Table of Roman Numerals. Table 1-6 shows examples of Roman numerals and their equivalents.

h. Number After Modified Noun. When a number expressed in Roman numerals is used to modify a noun, the number follows the noun. The noun is likely to be a unit of the apothecary system or a unit of dosage. For example, "gr ii" would be interpreted as "two grains" and "caps i" would mean "one capsule."

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