Operational Medicine Medical Education and Training

The Sensory System

CORRESPONDENCE COURSE

U.S. ARMY MEDICAL DEPARTMENT CENTER AND SCHOOL

SUBCOURSE MD0582 EDITION 100

THE SENSORY SYSTEM

The sensory system by which we see, smell, taste, and hear is often taken for granted until we lose one or more of these senses. From the time we are born, our senses shape our view of the world and transmit those impulses to the brain which trigger an adaptive response.

The importance of becoming familiar with the sensory structures is fundamental to the Medical NCO due to the structures' innate sensitivity and key role in daily life.

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Length: 100 Pages

Estimated Hours to Complete: 10

Format: PDF file

Size: 2.0 MB

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Anyone may take this course. However, to receive credit hours, you must be officially enrolled and complete an examination furnished by the Nonresident Instruction Branch at Fort Sam Houston, Texas. Enrollment is normally limited to Department of Defense personnel. Others may apply for enrollment, but acceptance is not guaranteed.

Anatomy of Smell

The Sensory System

Distance Learning Course
100 Pages
Est. 10Hours
2.0 MB pdf file

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Anatomy of the Eye

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

INTRODUCTION

1 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE SENSORY SYSTEM

Section I. General

Section II. The Special Sense of Vision (Sight)

Section III. The Special Sense of Hearing (Auditory)

Section IV. The Special Sense of Smell (Olfaction)

Section V. The Special Sense of Taste (Gustation)

Exercises

2 PHYSICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE SENSORY SYSTEM (HEENT)

Exercises

3 EENT DISEASES AND DISORDERS

Section I. Ocular Diseases and Disorders

Section II. Conditions of the Ear

Section III. Nasal Conditions/Throat Conditions

Exercises

4 HEENT TRAUMA

Section I. Head Injuries

Section II. Eye Injuries

Section III. Ear Injuries/Disorders

Section IV. Nose Injuries

Section V. Throat Injuries

Exercises

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LESSON 1

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE SENSORY SYSTEM

Section I. GENERAL

1-1. INTRODUCTION

The ability to sense stimuli is vital to man's survival. If pain could not be sensed, burns would be common. Internal problems such as an inflamed appendix or a stomach ulcer could be unnoticed without pain. Without sight there is a greater risk of injury from obstacles. Harmful gas could be inhaled if there were no sense of smell.

Loss of a sense of hearing would keep us from recognizing hazards such as automobile horns. And if there were no taste, toxic substances could be ingested. If we could not "sense" out environment and make the necessary adjustments, we probably could not survive on our own.

NOTE: In this subcourse, you will see the letters EENT and HEENT. EENT stands for eyes, ears, nose, and throat. HEENT stands for head, eyes, ears, nose, and throat.

1-2. THE SENSORY PATHWAYS

a. Sensations. The body is continuously bombarded by types of information called stimuli (stimulus, singular). Those few stimuli which are consciously perceived (in the cerebral hemispheres) are called sensations. Structures that detect changes in man's external and internal environment produce sensations on the senses.

b. Senses and Receptions. The senses and the location of their receptors are as follows:

(1) Vision--receptors in the eyes.

(2) Smell--receptors in the nose.

(3) Hearing--receptors in the ears.

(4) Taste--receptors in the tongue.

(5) Touch, heat, cold, pain --receptors in the skin.

(6) Position--receptors in the muscles, joints, inner ear.

(7) Hunger, thirst--receptors in the tongue, pharynx, mouth.

c. Two Types of Senses. They are differentiated by the type of sensation they cause. Special senses are produced by receptors limited to small areas such as the tongue, nose, balance, hearing, vision, smell, and taste. General senses are produced by receptors scattered throughout the body such as pressure, temperature, pain, position, and touch.

d. Sensation and Perception. In its broadest meaning, sensation refers to man's state of being aware of external or internal conditions of the body. The state of being aware of something through the senses is perception. Four conditions must take place for a sensation to occur.

(1) A stimulus--a change in the environment which causes a response by the nervous system.

(2) A receptor or sense organ-- picks up a stimulus and converts it to a nerve impulse.

(3) Conduction--the impulse must be conducted from the receptor or sense organ along a pathway to the brain.

(4) Translation--the impulse must be translated into a sensation when the impulse is in a region of the brain.

From The Sensory System

 

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